The bio-essential trace metal iron (Fe) has poor inorganic solubility in seawater, and therefore dissolution is dependent on organic complexation. The Arctic Ocean is subject to strong terrestrial influences which contribute to organic solubility of Fe, particularly in the surface. These influences are subject to rapid changes in the catchments of the main contributing rivers. Here we report concentrations and binding strengths of Fe-binding organic ligands in relation to spectral properties of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) and concentrations of humic substances. Full-depth profiles of Fe and Fe-binding organic ligands were measured for 11 stations, good agreement to previous studies was found with ligand concentrations between 0.9 and 2.2 equivalent nM of Fe (Eq. nM Fe) at depths > 200 m. We found nutrient-like profiles of Fe in the Atlantic-influenced Nansen basin, surface enrichment in the surface over the Amundsen and Makarov basins and scavenging effects in the deep Makarov basin. A highly detailed surface transect consisting of two sections crossing the surface flow from the Siberian continental shelf to the Fram Strait, the TransPolar Drift (TPD), clearly indicates the flow path of the riverine contribution to Fe and Fe-binding organic ligands with concentrations of 0.7 to 4.4 nM and 1.6 to 4.1 Eq. nM Fe, respectively. This is on average 4.5 times higher in DFe and 1.7 times higher in Fe-binding organic ligands than outside the TPD flow path. Conditional binding strengths of ligands in the entire dataset were remarkably similar at 11.45 ≤LogK′ ≤12.63. Increased organic Fe-binding organic ligand concentrations were evident in the Arctic Ocean surface. To better identify the organic substances responsible for Fe complexation in the Arctic Ocean, diverse analytical approaches and a standard other than Suwannee River Fulvic Acid are recommended.
|H.A. Slagter||Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ-TX)|
|H.E. Reader||National Institute for Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark|
|M.J.A. Rijkenberg||Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ-TX)|
|M. Rutgers van der Loeff||Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research|
|H.J.W. de Baar||Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ-TX)|
|L.J.A. Gerringa||Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ-TX)|